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International Journal of Theoretical and Applied Research (IJTAR) is a journal in basic and applied science that is published by Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University (Girls Branch).

The journal is committed to international scientific publishing charters as well as encouraging researchers with superior understanding to generate new ideas and problem-solving models and to publish world-class empirical research.

Journal only considers research articles and literature reviews. It does not accept hypothesis papers, commentaries, opinion pieces, case studies, case reports etc. The journal is published three times per year.

All submitted papers are subjected to a strict double-blind peer-reviewing process. The Journal is committed to publishing manuscripts via a rapid, impartial, and rigorous review process. Once accepted, manuscripts are granted free online open-access immediately upon publication, which permits its users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts, thus facilitating access to a broad readership. Papers accepted for publishing are either subscription with a publishing fee of 700 EGP or open access with a publishing fee of 100 USD.

Current Issue: Volume 3, Issue 1, June 2024 


Pages 328-342

Esraa Alaa Mahareek; Eman k. elsaid; Nahed M. El-Desouky; kamal A. el-dahshan